Marine Plastic Debris Rapid Hotspot Assessment

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oleh : Ken Butler dan Jacky Latuheru

2016

Download link : Marine Plastic Debris Rapid Hotspot Assessment

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Biogas Facility Opened in Denmark

Utility firm, E.ON Denmark, has opened a 300,000 tonne per year Grøngas Vraa organic waste to biogas anaerobic digestion facility.

By BEN MESSENGER

Soren Gade turns on the tap connecting the Grøngas Vraa biogas plant to the Danish gas network.

6000m-2

Utility firm, E.ON Denmark, has opened a 300,000 tonne per year Grøngas Vraa organic waste to biogas anaerobic digestion facility.

The company said that the 115 million crown ($17.5 million) facility will produce biomethane from manure and organic wastes and is directly connected to the Danish gas network.

The new biogas plant in Vrå will process 300,000 tonnes of biomass annually, of which approximately 250,000 tonnes is expected to be manure that would otherwise have ended up as untreated on fields.

“When we open the taps for the new biogas plant today, we make it easier to convert manure and food scraps to green energy,” commented Tore Harritshøj, adm. director of E.ON Denmark.

He added that the plant will also reduce Denmark’s CO2 emissions by approximately 25,000 tonnes annually.

The biogas plant, which is the size of 12 football fields, is expected to supply the Danish gas grid with approximately 9 million. cubic meters of biomethane. This corresponds to the annual consumption of 4300 cars or 250 buses if they were running on biogas or the gas consumption of 6500 homes.

E.ON noted that there is still a long way to meet Denmark’s policy objectives of converting 50% of the country’s manure into biogas by 2020. With Grøngas online and several new plants  due for completion in 2016 it said that barely 15% of Danish manure is now used for biogas production.

The company said that the Grøngas Vraa employs approximately 10 people.

 

Belajar Mengelola Sampah dari Negara Maju

Cara terbaik mengurangi sampah adalah dengan tidak menghasilkannya. Hal ini berlaku bagi semua negara tak terkecuali di negara maju.

Masalah sampah muncul seiring pertumbuhan ekonomi dan meningkatnya kesejahteraan masyarakat. Data dari Lembaga Perlindungan Lingkungan AS (Environmental Protection Agency) menyebutkan, penduduk Amerika menghasilkan 250 juta ton sampah padat per tahun pada 2010. Bandingkan dengan jumlah sampah padat yang dihasilkan oleh penduduk Indonesia pada periode yang sama yang mencapai 56,3 juta ton pertahun.

Menurut data statistik Eurostat, setiap tahun, masyarakat Uni Eropa membuang 3 miliar ton sampah – 90 juta ton di antaranya adalah sampah beracun. Dari angka tersebut berarti, setiap pria, wanita dan anak-anak di Eropa membuang 6 ton sampah padat setiap tahun.

Namun menemukan cara mengelola dan membuang sampah – tanpa merugikan lingkungan – terus menjadi masalah besar di semua negara hingga saat ini. Di Eropa, kebanyakan dari sampah tersebut dibakar di tempat pembakaran sampah (incinerators) atau dibuang ke tempat pembuangan sampah akhir (67%). Namun kedua metode ini sama-sama merusak lingkungan.

Kebutuhan lahan untuk lokasi pembuangan sampah terus meningkat. Sampah juga mencemari udara, air dan tanah, melepas karbon dioksida (CO2) dan metana (CH4) ke udara, serta bahan kimia dan pestisida ke tanah. Hal ini membahayakan tidak hanya bagi kesehatan manusia, namun juga bagi hewan dan tumbuhan.

Amerika Serikat maupun Uni Eropa, berpegang pada tiga prinsip berikut untuk menangani sampah:

1. Mencegah produksi sampah

Strategi ini adalah yang terpenting dalam pola pengelolaan sampah yang sangat terkait dengan upaya perusahaan untuk memimimalisir kemasan dan upaya memengaruhi konsumen untuk membeli produk-produk yang ramah lingkungan.

Jika upaya ini berhasil – dengan bantuan media dan lembaga terkait – maka dunia akan bisa mengurangi sampah secara signifikan dan mendorong penggunaan bahan-bahan ramah lingkungan dalam setiap produk yang dikonsumsi oleh masyarakat.

2. Mendaur ulang dan menggunakan kembali suatu produk

Jika kita masih sulit untuk mencegah terciptanya sampah, langkah daur ulang adalah langkah alternatif yang bisa dilakukan untuk menguranginya.

Baik AS maupun negara Uni Eropa, mereka sudah menentukan jenis sampah apa saja yang menjadi prioritas untuk diolah dan didaur ulang, meliputi sampah kemasan, limbah kendaraan, beterai, peralatan listrik dan sampah elektronik.

Uni Eropa juga meminta negara-negara anggotanya untuk membuat peraturan tentang pengumpulan sampah, daur ulang, penggunaan kembali dan pembuangan sampah-sampah di atas. Hasilnya tingkat daur ulang sampah kemasan di beberapa negara anggota Uni Eropa mencapai lebih dari 50%.

Di AS, keberhasilan upaya daur ulang sejumlah produk juga sangat menggembirakan. Jumlah baterai (aki) kendaraan yang berhasil didaur ulang mencapai 96%. Jumlah surat kabar dan kertas yang berhasil didaur ulang ada di tempat kedua sebesar 71% dan sekitar duapertiga (67%) kaleng baja berhasil didaur ulang. Tantangan terbesar ada pada upaya mendaur ulang produk-produk elektronik konsumen dan wadah gelas. AS baru berhasil mendaur ulang seperempat (25%) dan sepertiganya.

3. Memerbaiki cara pengawasan dan pembuangan sampah akhir

Jika sampah tidak berhasil didaur ulang atau digunakan kembali sampah harus dibakar dengan aman. Lokasi pembuangan sampah adalah solusi terakhir. Kedua metode ini memerlukan pengawasan yang ketat karena berpotensi merusak lingkungan.

Uni Eropa baru-baru ini menyetujui peraturan pengelolaan TPA yang sangat ketat dengan melarang pembuangan ban bekas dan metetapkan target pengurangan sampah yang bisa terurai secara biologis.

Batas polusi di tempat pembakaran sampah juga telah ditetapkan. Mereka juga berupaya mengurangi polusi dioksin dan gas asam seperti nitrogen oksida (NOx), sulfur dioksida (SO2), dan hidrogen chlorida (HCL), yang sangat berbahaya bagi kesehatan.

Catatan penting, berdasarkan data EPA, upaya daur ulang dan pembuatan kompos di AS berhasil mencegah pembuangan 85,1 juta ton sampah pada 2010, naik dari hanya 15 juta ton pada 1980.

Prestasi ini setara dengan mencegah pelepasan sekitar 186 juta metrik ton emisi setara karbon dioksida (CO2) ke udara pada 2010 atau setara dengan memensiunkan 36 juta mobil dari jalan raya dalam satu tahun!

Upaya pengelolaan sampah yang baik tidak hanya memecahkan masalah pencemaran lingkungan tapi juga bisa menjadi solusi memerlambat efek pemanasan global. Sampai di mana kita?

Redaksi Hijauku.com

sumber : http://www.hijauku.com/2012/05/08/belajar-mengelola-sampah-dari-negara-maju/

Produced but never eaten: a visual guide to food waste

Whether the wastage is measured in tonnes of spoiled goods, hectares of agricultural land or household expenditure, the scale is frightening

How much food is wasted globally each year?

Each year 1.3bn tonnes of food, about a third of all that is produced, is wasted, including about 45% of all fruit and vegetables, 35% of fish and seafood, 30% of cereals, 20% of dairy products and 20% of meat.

What does this mean for agriculture?

About 1.4bn hectares, or close to 30% of available agricultural land, is used to grow or farm food that is subsequently wasted. This is particularly alarming given estimates that by 2050 food production will need to have increased by 60% on 2005 levels to feed a growing global population. Reducing food wastage would ease the burden on resources as the world attempts to meet future demand.

Where, how and when is most of the food wasted?

In developing countries there are high levels of what is known as “food loss”, which is unintentional wastage, often due to poor equipment, transportation and infrastructure. In wealthy countries, there are low levels of unintentional losses but high levels of “food waste”, which involves food being thrown away by consumers because they have purchased too much, or by retailers who reject food because of exacting aesthetic standards.

 

How about the UK – What type of foods do we waste most?

In the UK, 15m tonnes of food is lost or wasted each year and consumers throw away 4.2m tonnes of edible food each year. The foods most commonly found in British bins are bread, vegetables, fruit and milk.

What does this mean for the average family?

The average family throws away £700 worth of perfectly good food a year, or almost or almost £60 worth of food a month. The average weekly expenditure on food and non-alcoholic drinks in 2013 was £58.80 according to the ONS, which means a typical family throws away a week’s worth of groceries each month.

sumber : http://www.theguardian.com/environment/ng-interactive/2015/aug/12/produced-but-never-eaten-a-visual-guide-to-food-waste

Recycling

Recycling is any process that involves the recovery and reuse of materials that were once considered trash. Recycling can be as simple as reusing something—such as a coat or computer—by passing it on for someone else to use. Or, it can be as involved as reprocessing materials in metals, plastics, paper, or glass to make new products.

recycle_01

An Old Idea Is Rediscovered

There is nothing new about recycling. People have found ways to reuse pottery, gold, silver, and bronze for thousands of years. Old swords were melted and reshaped to use as plows. Gold and silver jewelry were melted down and reshaped into other forms. As recently as one hundred years ago, traveling peddlers in the United States and Europe collected rags, bones, and scrap metal waste from household garbage and sold them to manufacturers to make into new products.

During the early twentieth century, Americans relied less and less on recycling. By the 1950s the United States was labeled a “throw-away economy” because Americans were consuming increasing amounts of goods that ended up in garbage landfills.

Recycling was revived in many Western countries back in the 1960s and 1970s as the public became interested in conservation and looked for ways to reduce damage to the environment. In the United States, the first Earth Day in 1970 is often viewed as the official beginning of the modern recycling movement. On that day, hundreds of new recycling centers opened across the country.

The recycling movement caught on in many other Western countries during the next thirty years. Today, Germany recycles 30 percent of all of its trash. Japan recycles over 50 percent of its trash, half of all wastepaper and glass bottles, and more than 60 percent of its drink and food cans.

At the start of the twenty-first century, the United States recycling efforts are behind many European nations. Americans generate twice the amount of trash as Germans, but recycle less. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the United States recycled 28 percent of its waste in 2002. States vary widely in their recycling programs. Minnesota is the nation’s leader in recycling with a rate of recycling 45 percent of all domestic waste. Montana and Wyoming are at the bottom of the list, recycling less than 5 percent.

Why Recycle?

Recycling is one of the easiest steps anyone can take to reduce the impact of humans on the environment. On average, each American produces approximately 3.5 pounds of garbage per day. That is 1,500 pounds per person each year—or 90,000 pounds in a lifetime. Without recycling, all this trash ends up in landfills.

In the 1970s many people believed that recycling’s greatest benefit was the reduction of the number of landfills because this would reduce the pollution associated with landfills and preserve the land. More recently, researchers have found multiple benefits to recycling.

  1. Recycling saves natural resources. Recycling reduces the demand for new materials from the environment. For example, by recycling paper, fewer trees are needed to produce new paper.
  2. Recycling saves habitats such as rain forests. By reducing the demand for new materials (such as metals that must be mined and refined) from the environment, more land and habitats can be preserved and/or conserved.
  3. Recycling saves energy and reduces emissions. In most cases, it takes less energy to make new products from recycled materials than from virgin raw materials. For example, it takes 95 percent less energy to produce aluminum products from recycled aluminum than from the raw materials of bauxite ore. In general, recycling of materials also produces less pollution than processing raw materials.
  4. Recycling can be economical. Recycling is often less expensive than the combined cost of processing new materials and managing waste disposal.
  5. Recycling reduces the need for new landfills and incinerators. Landfills and incinerators can emit hazards to the environment. When landfills leak, hazardous solvents can contaminate underlying ground-water—water that may be used for agriculture or as drinking water. Landfills and incinerators also emit pollution into the air.
  6. Recycling reduces the improper disposal of trash, such as littering.

Internal and External Recycling

Most people associate recycling with items such as newspapers, magazines, plastics, aluminum, and glass. The recovery, reprocessing, and reuse of materials from used items is called external recycling and requires public participation.

A second type of recycling, internal recycling, is the reuse of waste materials from manufacturing and does not involve the general public. For example, the manufacture/production of copper items results in wasted copper pieces; with internal recycling, these pieces are melted down and recast. Although internal recovery is possible in many industries, it is most common in the metal industry.

Because industrial waste accounts for 98 percent of all waste in the United States, many critics of recycling advocate that more attention should be paid to internal recycling than external recycling.

How External Recycling Works

External recycling involves three basic steps:

  1. Recovery. Recovery is the collection of used items that can be recycled. Many cities have drop-off centers or special curbside pickup programs to collect recyclables. Recovery may include sorting and separation of collected materials.
  2. Reprocessing. Reprocessing is the conversion of used items into reusable products. For example, glass is melted down and molded into new bottles or paper is reprocessed into new paper. There are three kinds of reprocessing: primary, secondary, and tertiary:
    • Primary recycling is the reprocessing of materials into the same type of product, such the recycling of used glass bottles into new glass bottles.
    • Secondary recycling is the reprocessing of materials into different but similar products, such as processing corrugated cardboard boxes into cereal boxes.
    • Tertiary recycling is the reprocessing of a material into a product that cannot be recycled again—for example, when mixed office paper is reprocessed into bathroom tissue.
  3. Marketing and sale of new items. One of the most challenging parts of recycling is creating markets for recycled items. Recycling programs depend on their ability to advertise and sell recycled items at competitive prices. Recycling does not accomplish its goals if recycled items are not used.

What Things Are Recycled?

There are four groups of materials that are commonly recycled today.

  1. Standard recyclables. The most commonly recycled materials are aluminum, glass, paper products, steel, and plastics.
  2. Hazardous wastes. Hazardous wastes include items such as antifreeze, motor oil, paint, and batteries. Many cities have special centers to recycle hazardous wastes.
  3. Newer products. Some recycling centers have systems to reprocess newer products such as compact and floppy disks.
  4. Used automobiles and parts.

Aluminum. Aluminum cans are the most widely recycled metal. In 1999 roughly two-thirds of all aluminum cans produced in the United States were recycled. However, not all forms of aluminum are recycled. For example, aluminum foil can be recycled, but not all recycling centers are set up to process it.

Paper. Paper recycling is one of this country’s most successful recycling programs. By weight, more paper is recycled each year than all other materials combined. The success of this program is in part due to the successful marketing and sale of recycled paper. Recycled paper is widely used today. Unfortunately, paper can only be recycled a limited number of times, because the paper fibers become too short to continue reprocessing after awhile.

Newspaper. Every part of a newspaper can be recycled—including the newspaper and inserts. Newspaper recycling has been profitable for decades.

Steel. Steel cans can be recycled many times. Recycled steel is used for many products such as tin cans.

Plastics. Plastics are not biodegradable, so the best choice is to recycle them. But plastics are a challenge for recycling centers. There are so many different kinds of plastics that they are difficult for recycling centers to reprocess; in fact, many plastics cannot be recycled. Those plastics that can be recycled can only be recycled a few times. Today, most plastic containers are marked on the bottom with a number in a triangle. Each number indicates a different kind of plastic. This information allows recycling center staff to identify plastic containers that can or cannot be recycled. Containers marked one or two are the most commonly accepted plastics for recycling.

Hazardous wastes. Hazardous wastes include toxic materials such as paints, solvents, motor oil, antifreeze, herbicides, and batteries. If these materials end up in landfills, the risk exists that they may leak into underlying groundwater which people use for drinking. If incinerated, these materials end up in the air. Many recycling centers have special programs for handling hazardous wastes.

Batteries. Batteries contain many toxic ingredients, such as lead and cadmium, which can cause serious environmental damage if they are buried in landfills. Many recycling centers direct customers to special dealers who accept used batteries.

Computers. Used computers are a challenge for recycling, because they need to be completely disassembled. Recently, a number of companies have started exploring ways to do this efficiently and cost effectively. Recycling of computers is becoming increasingly important as the number of used computers continues to grow. One computer manufacturer, Dell, is now offering to take back old computers for reuse or recycling.

Automobile Recycling. For years, the economic incentives of recycling parts from cars, trucks and other motor vehicles has made automobile recycling a big business. In the United States, each year, more than eleven million vehicles are sent to the junkyard because they have been damaged in accidents or have reached the end of their life. About three-quarters of the scrapped vehicles are recycled or their parts are resold. Every part from the doors and windows to engines and transmissions are sold; other recyclable metal parts are magnetically separated from other materials. The rest are shredded and buried in landfills.

In the future, a smaller percentage of automobile parts will be recyclable as cars are built with more nonmetal, nonrecyclable materials, unless the automobile makers give serious attention to designing new cars that can be recycled. New cars are being built with more and more high-tech gear and hundreds of different materials that cannot be recovered.

Countries in the European Union have been exploring ways to encourage automobile manufacturers to take greater responsibility for the recycling of “end of life” automobiles. Several countries have already implemented “end of product responsibility” programs. For example, in the Netherlands, car manufacturers are liable to pay a recycling fee when they market a vehicle. The fee is then used to cover possible recycling costs.

Composting—Recycling Organic Materials

Composting is a method of recycling organic materials, such as certain food waste and yard clippings, directly into the soil. Although there are many ways to make composts, the basic idea is to mix yard clippings and food waste into a pile with soil and let it decompose; worms, insects, and other organisms help break it down. Once the material in a compost has broken down, the degraded material can be tilled into the soil and applied as nutrient-rich mulch or material for plants.

Composting offers an opportunity to provide a rich source of nutrients for gardens and to reduce the amount of waste taking up space in landfills. Food and yard wastes currently make up about 30 percent of all wastes going into landfills. The airtight design of landfills slows down the decomposition of organic materials because they need oxygen to decompose. One community that has taken composting seriously is Halifax, Nova Scotia. Roughly 30 to 50 percent of their waste is organic matter. In 1997 the Nova Scotia Department of Environment passed a law banning the disposal of food, leaf and yard waste from landfills. Through heightened use of composting and other programs, between 1989 and 2000, Nova Scotia’s per capita waste production dropped from 720 kg to 356 kg.

see also Composting; Plastics; Pollution Prevention; Reuse; Solid Waste; Waste Reduction.

Bibliography

Ackerman, Frank. (1997). Why Do We Recycle? Washington, D.C.: Island Press.

Cothran, Helen, ed. (2003). Garbage and Recycling: Opposing Viewpoints. Chicago: Greenhaven Press.

The Earthworks Group. (1989). 50 Simple Things You Can Do to Save the Earth. Berkeley, CA: The Earthworks Press.

The Earthworks Group. (1990). The Recyclers Handbook: Simple Things You Can Do. Berkeley, CA: The Earthworks Press.

League of Women’s Voters. (1993). The Garbage Primer: A Handbook for Citizens. New York: Lyons and Burford Publishers.

Mc Donough, William, and Braungart, Michael. (2002). Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. New York: Northpoint Press.

Nova Scotia Department of the Environment. (2001). Status Report 2001 of Solid Waste-Resource Management in Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Department of the Environment.

Thompson, Claudia G. (1992). Recycled Papers: The Essential Guide. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

internet resources

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Municipal Solid Waste.” Available fromhttp://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/recycle.htm.

Global Recycling Network Web site. Available from http://grn.com.

Recycling Today Web site. Available from http://www.recyclingtoday.com.

Corliss Karasov

RECYCLING

The Netherlands recycled more than three quarters (77%)of the approximately 65 million tons of garbage it generated in 2000. Public pressure to reduce dioxin emissions from incineration plants and pollution from landfills led to landfill taxes beginning in 1995 and a landfill ban on combustible waste in 1997. In addition, government-owned incineration plants were operated below full capacity at the same time as incentives to expand the recyclables market and encourage end-of-life producer responsibility were initiated. Mandatory separation of different types of industrial wastes, with recycling of construction and demolition waste within a government financed infrastructure, and municipal curbside pickups of organic waste for composting, along with separated household recyclables, has decreased landfilling from 35 percent in 1985 to 9 percent in 2000.

sumber: http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/recycling.aspx#2

Holiday Inn Club Vacations Soap Recycling Partnership with Clean the World

Holiday Inn Club Vacations has partnered with Clean The World to recycle partially-used soaps and bottled hygiene products from its resorts for distribution in the developing world as part of a sanitation program.

Holiday Inn Club Vacations has partnered with Clean The World to recycle partially-used soaps and bottled hygiene products from its resorts for distribution in the developing world as part of a sanitation program.

Clean the World is a social enterprise dedicated to saving millions of lives around the world while simultaneously diverting hotel waste from landfills in North America, Asia and Europe.

The soap collected from hotels goes through a sterilisation and recycling process while being re-manufactured into new soap bars. Since 2009, Clean the World said that it has distributed more than 31 million bars of recycled soap in 100 countries.

According to the organisation, on average over 5000 children die every day from hygiene-related illnesses, primarily pneumonia and diarrheal disease, which are two of the top killers of children under the age of five. That number was said to have  dropped by 30% since Clean the World started providing recycled soap and hygiene education in developing regions seven years ago.

“Clean the World is one of the most respected and highly recognized hospitality sustainability programs in our industry, saving thousands of lives every year through their soap recycling and distribution program,” commented Don Harrill, CEO of Holiday Inn Club Vacations.

“We are making hand washing a lifelong habit for people who either don’t have access to soap or don’t come from a hand washing culture,” explained Shawn Seipler, founder and CEO of Clean the World.

“This partnership with the Holiday Inn Club Vacations brand is so important for Clean the World because it provides support for our work around the world, including vital new hygiene programs being developed right now in Kenya and Tanzania,” he added/

The partnership with Holiday Inn Club Vacations resorts is expected to divert around 5 tonnes of soap away from landfill each year.

source : https://waste-management-world.com/a/holiday-inn-club-vacations-soap-recycling-partnership-with-clean-the-world

Lebanon’s drowning in its own waste!

Lebanese garbage crisis

Want a peek into a dystopian future? This is an update on the garbage crisis in Lebanon, which is largely attributed to a corrupted political system, but it’s also a cautionary tale about uncontrolled consumerism and environmental arrogance that could happen in nearly every free market zip code.

Since the nation’s largest landfill closed in July, Lebanon has been drowning in its own garbage. The waste crisis escalated last weekend when angry demonstrators tried to storm the parliament in Beirut. Riot police responded with tear gas and water cannon, and according to some reports, rubber bullets and live ammunition. An unspecified number of demonstrators and more than 35 Internal Security Forces (ISF) members were wounded, according to an ISF online statement.

lebanon's largest landfill

The Naameh dump site in the mountains southeast of Beirut (shown above) had been the endpoint for waste generated by half of Lebanon’s four million people. This summer,  when authorities failed to find an alternate landfill, Naameh residents blocked trucks from dropping new garbage, which triggered a waste collection shutdown across wider Beirut. So began a domino effect that resulted in the death of one Beirut protester, and as yet undefined environmental fallout.

port of beirut

Garbage dropped near the Port of Beirut (shown above) triggered a mid-August work stoppage over mounting health and safety concerns. “We will not accept our port becoming the capital’s dumping ground. The health of all who enter the port is at risk, workers, visitors and customers.” Bchara Asmar, president of the Union of Beirut port employees, told ITF Global. He added that the Lebanese government has not provided a viable long-term waste management solution; forcing municipalities to resort to temporary remedies.

Beirut garbage protests

The situation has prompted protests across Beirut, but also grassroot solutions. Local priests are calling for reduced pollution, citing Pope Francis’ recent criticism of our “throwaway culture”. The mayor of northern town Roumieh organized volunteers and city employees to collect recyclables and biodegradable waste (such as food scraps) on a regular schedule. Recyclables with commercial value will be sold to help underwrite the initiative.

Lebanese demonstraters take shelter behind a rubbish container during clashes with security forces following a demonstration, organised by the "You Stink" campaign, against the ongoing trash crisis in the capital Beirut on August 22, 2015. Thousands of protesters, including children, gathered to protest the Lebanese government's inability to find a lasting solution to the country's worsening waste problem. AFP PHOTO / STR

Beirut business owner and environmental engineer Ziad Abichaker told the Wall Street Journal, “I think it is a golden opportunity now to start saying to people that you need a paradigm shift. You need to stop looking at waste as a problem and start looking at it as a resource.”

These efforts – quietly pursued before the protests – are garnering increased attention by a public desperate to dig out of the stinking debris. (Reports state some 20 tons of rubbish have been dumped in the capital’s streets).

Lebanon has been without a president for 15 months.  Its government is viewed as paralyzed and ineffective, a reputation underscored when Environment Minister Mohammed el-Mashnouq posted a statement saying his office was “working silently” to resolve what he called “a tragic situation”.

Reduce, reuse, recycle. Those actions won’t fix a broken bureaucracy, but will lessen the pain when civil services collapse.

source : http://www.greenprophet.com/2015/08/lebanons-drowning-in-its-own-waste/