Produced but never eaten: a visual guide to food waste

Whether the wastage is measured in tonnes of spoiled goods, hectares of agricultural land or household expenditure, the scale is frightening

How much food is wasted globally each year?

Each year 1.3bn tonnes of food, about a third of all that is produced, is wasted, including about 45% of all fruit and vegetables, 35% of fish and seafood, 30% of cereals, 20% of dairy products and 20% of meat.

What does this mean for agriculture?

About 1.4bn hectares, or close to 30% of available agricultural land, is used to grow or farm food that is subsequently wasted. This is particularly alarming given estimates that by 2050 food production will need to have increased by 60% on 2005 levels to feed a growing global population. Reducing food wastage would ease the burden on resources as the world attempts to meet future demand.

Where, how and when is most of the food wasted?

In developing countries there are high levels of what is known as “food loss”, which is unintentional wastage, often due to poor equipment, transportation and infrastructure. In wealthy countries, there are low levels of unintentional losses but high levels of “food waste”, which involves food being thrown away by consumers because they have purchased too much, or by retailers who reject food because of exacting aesthetic standards.

 

How about the UK – What type of foods do we waste most?

In the UK, 15m tonnes of food is lost or wasted each year and consumers throw away 4.2m tonnes of edible food each year. The foods most commonly found in British bins are bread, vegetables, fruit and milk.

What does this mean for the average family?

The average family throws away £700 worth of perfectly good food a year, or almost or almost £60 worth of food a month. The average weekly expenditure on food and non-alcoholic drinks in 2013 was £58.80 according to the ONS, which means a typical family throws away a week’s worth of groceries each month.

sumber : http://www.theguardian.com/environment/ng-interactive/2015/aug/12/produced-but-never-eaten-a-visual-guide-to-food-waste
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Recycling Progress in the U.S

Recycling Progress in the U.S.

90133254.jpg - Radius Images, Getty

 Radius Images, Getty

Recycling in the United States has made considerable progress. In 2012, the U.S. generated approximately 251 million tons of waste while 87 million tons (34.5 percent) of that was recycled. Back in 1980, Americans recycled only 15 million tons of waste. The amount of waste recycled in 2012 prevented the release of about 168 million metric tons of carbon dioxide, the equivalent to taking some 33 million cars of the road for a year.

In 2012, an average American produced 4.38 pounds of waste and recycled 1.51 pounds. So, it can be said that the U.S. recycling industry has seen a considerable growth over the last few decades, however, there is still a lot of opportunity for improvement. It should be noted there is no national law making recycling of any kind of material mandatory, leaving states and local governments to enact an array of different recycling requirements and laws.

Major Recycling Laws in the U.S.

Over the years, the U.S. government has relied on local and state governments to oversee recycling and waste management laws. State and local government regulations fall into two major categories: recycling goals and landfill bans. Landfill bans make disposing enumerated materials such as oil, yard waste and other easily collectable materials illegal. Currently, North Carolina, Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin have landfill bans.

Other states such as California and Illinois focus on recycling goals. Some states simply encourage recycling of certain materials such as plastic bottles by passing a bill.

To date, 25 states have passed laws making state-wide electronic waste recycling mandatory. These 25 states cover 65 percent of the population of the USA. Back in 2003, California was the first to enact the first e-waste recycling law and in 2011, Utah was last in this list.

Although there are no specific national recycling laws in the USA. the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates waste management and recycling under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The key goals of RCRA are: protect Americans from toxic and hazardous waste disposal, preserve natural resources and energy by recovering, reusing and recycling,

Early History of Recycling in the U.S.

In terms of the historical timeline for recycling in the U.S.,1972 marked the first recycling mill in the country, built in Conshohocken, Pennsylvania. In the early 1970s, the first city to mandate recycling was Woodbury, New Jersey. Curbside recycling first began in 1973, and by 2006 there were more than 8,000 curbside recycling programs throughout the country, a number which continues to expand.

America Recycles Day

Every year, America Recycles Day (ARD) is celebrated on November 15, an event which started in 1997 to encourage Americans to recycle more and use recycled products. On that day, across the country, events on recycling education such as the environmental, social and economic benefits of recycling are arranged.

Recycling Businesses and Industry Associations 

USA has a number of recycling national and local recycling industry associations. The National Recycling Coalition (NRC) is the national recycling association which consists of over 6000 recycling businesses from all across the U.S. Here is a list of local industry associations.

Major recycling businesses are also members of international recycling industry associations such as Bureau of International Recycling (BIR) and Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries Inc. (ISRI).

Material-Wise Recycling Rates 

In 2012, total yearly waste recovery in the U.S. was 87 million tons. Of that amount, 51 percent consisted paper and paperboard, 22 percent yard trimmings, 9 percent metal, 4 percent food waste, 4 percent glass, 3 percent plastic and wood and 6 percent other materials. EPA data shows that 70 percent of paper and paperboard and 58 percent of yard trimmings was recovered for recycling in 2012.

Outlook

One of the major challenges for recycling gains by tonnage is that packaging is becoming increasingly lightweight, so improved recycling habits do not readily appear obvious in terms of additional weight of material recycled. One of the most promising areas for improved recycling is in the area of organic waste recovery, as more communities are moving to divert it from landfills.

References

http://www.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/

http://business-ethics.com/2010/11/21/why-no-national-recycling-law-in-the-u-s/

http://www.electronicstakeback.com/promote-good-laws/state-legislation/

http://www.electronicsrecycling.org/public/contentpage.aspx?pageid=14

http://keepincalendar.com/November-15/America-Recycles-Day/319

http://www.epa.gov/students/amrecycles.html

http://www2.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-resource-conservation-and-recovery-act

http://www.nrdc.org/cities/recycling/fover.asp

sumber : http://recycling.about.com/od/Resources/fl/Recycling-Progress-in-the-US.htm