Produced but never eaten: a visual guide to food waste

Whether the wastage is measured in tonnes of spoiled goods, hectares of agricultural land or household expenditure, the scale is frightening

How much food is wasted globally each year?

Each year 1.3bn tonnes of food, about a third of all that is produced, is wasted, including about 45% of all fruit and vegetables, 35% of fish and seafood, 30% of cereals, 20% of dairy products and 20% of meat.

What does this mean for agriculture?

About 1.4bn hectares, or close to 30% of available agricultural land, is used to grow or farm food that is subsequently wasted. This is particularly alarming given estimates that by 2050 food production will need to have increased by 60% on 2005 levels to feed a growing global population. Reducing food wastage would ease the burden on resources as the world attempts to meet future demand.

Where, how and when is most of the food wasted?

In developing countries there are high levels of what is known as “food loss”, which is unintentional wastage, often due to poor equipment, transportation and infrastructure. In wealthy countries, there are low levels of unintentional losses but high levels of “food waste”, which involves food being thrown away by consumers because they have purchased too much, or by retailers who reject food because of exacting aesthetic standards.

 

How about the UK – What type of foods do we waste most?

In the UK, 15m tonnes of food is lost or wasted each year and consumers throw away 4.2m tonnes of edible food each year. The foods most commonly found in British bins are bread, vegetables, fruit and milk.

What does this mean for the average family?

The average family throws away £700 worth of perfectly good food a year, or almost or almost £60 worth of food a month. The average weekly expenditure on food and non-alcoholic drinks in 2013 was £58.80 according to the ONS, which means a typical family throws away a week’s worth of groceries each month.

sumber : http://www.theguardian.com/environment/ng-interactive/2015/aug/12/produced-but-never-eaten-a-visual-guide-to-food-waste
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BAKERY WASTE TO CARBO-LOAD BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION IN SWEDEN

BAKERY WASTE TO CARBO-LOAD BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION IN SWEDEN

June 8, 2015

Bakery waste to carbo-load bioethanol production in Sweden

A plant that turns leftover biowaste from local bakeries into five million litres of advanced bioethanol has been integrated at an existing oil refinery in Gothenburg, Sweden.

Delivered to North European Bio Tech Oy (NEB), the first Etanolix plant from Finnish energy company St1 will process feedstocks such as biowaste and process residue from local bakeries and bread from shops that is past its sell-by date into ethanol for transport fuel.

The ethanol plant has been integrated into the St1 oil refinery in Gothenburg, with staff also operating the Etanolix plant.

The Etanolix process has been developed as part of an EU funded LIFE+ Project and produces ethanol from biowastes. The steps in the figure above can be described as follows:

  1. Raw-material from the food industry is collected and transported to the refinery
  2. The ethanol plant produces both an 85% ethanol and a by-product called stillage. The stillage can be used as animal feed or the production of biogas
  3. The 85% ethanol is then dehydrated to approximately 100% ethanol
  4. After a quality check the ethanol product is pumped to the refinery storage tanks and then blended to finished product according to specification
  5. Delivery of the gasoline from the refinery to terminals and retail sites.

The Finnish investor of the new Gothenburg ethanol plant, NEB, is an associated company of SOK Corporation and St1.

The production capacity of the plant will be leased to North European Oil Trade Oy (NEOT), sister company to NEB.

The Gothenburg project has been selected for inclusion in the Life+ programme of the European Commission, which provides funding for projects for instance on energy, the climate, environmental management, industry and production, waste management and environmental policy.

In Finland, St1 has delivered four Etanolix plants and one Bionolix plant that produces ethanol from biowaste from shops and households. The first Cellunolix plant using sawdust as a feedstock, will begin production in Kajaani, Finland next year.

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sumber : http://www.waste-management-world.com/articles/2015/06/bakery-waste-to-carbo-load-bioethanol-production-in-sweden.html

Video kenapa kita perlu melakukan pengomposan – Too Good to Waste

Video kenapa kita perlu melakukan pengomposan.

Published on Jan 22, 2013

Watch a quick video that explains the science of how a landfill works and why turning food and yard waste into nutrient-rich compost for gardens, parks and farms is a better solution than burying it in a landfill. ​

Lihat video singkat penjelasan ilmiah bagaimana Landfill bekerja dan kenapa mengolah sampah makanan dan sampah halaman menjadi kompos yang kaya nutrisi untuk taman, kebun dan lahan pertanian adalah solusi yang lebih baik daripada menimbunnya di TPA (Landfill / Lahan-urug)

oleh : https://www.youtube.com/user/thecityofcalgary

20 Innovators Protecting the Planet #EarthDay2015

20 Innovators Protecting the Planet #EarthDay2015

April 22nd is the 45th anniversary of Earth Day and, this year, Food Tank is highlighting 20 of our favorite innovators.

April 22nd is the 45th anniversary of Earth Day—an important opportunity to highlight solutions to some of the world’s most pressing environmental and social challenges.

On a planet in which hunger and food waste coexist, where crops feed biofuels or animals despite water and food shortages, and where obesity in one country contrasts starvation in another, solutions and innovations to help ensure a vibrant, healthy future are more important than ever.

There are countless organizations and individuals who inspire us at Food Tank by producing creative and innovative solutions to challenges both people and the planet face including soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, climate change, poverty, industrial agriculture practices, land ownership, and food security.

Food Tank is highlighting 20 of our favorite innovators this Earth Day.

Jamila Abass—Abass is co-founder of M-Farm, a technology tool for smallholder farmers to receive information on the retail price of their products in Kenya. Farmers use SMS to buy farm inputs from manufacturers and connect to markets. The tool is innovating the way farmers access information and bring products to the marketplace.

Will Allen—Former professional basketball player, Allen, grew up on a small farm in Maryland where developed roots in farming. After returning to the United States from Belgium, Allen founded Growing Power Inc., a nonprofit organization for urban agriculture and community building. He is an innovator in methods of composting, vermicomposting, and aquaponics. Using these practices he has increased yields in urban growing spaces.

Bruno Follador—Follador is a geographer, biodynamic researcher, and specialist in biodynamic composting and chromatography. A native of San Paolo, Brazil, her first encountered biodynamics at the age of 18. According to Follador, educating and helping eaters to become conscious of their responsibility in a biodynamic system is one of the best ways to heal the food system. His work focuses on life processes and actively improving the health of farms.

Eric Holt-Giménez—An author, lecturer, agroecologist, and food system researcher, Holt-Giménez has been a vocal advocate for campesinos (peasant farmworkers) and a champion of el Movimiento Campesino a Campesino (the Farmer to Farmer Movement). The movement has now spread across Latin America with hundreds of thousands of practicing farmers in over a dozen countries.

John Georges—Georges is an entrepreneur and inventor from Arcadia, Florida. He has taken the challenges growers and farmers face in agricultural irrigation and invented a sustainable and cost effective solution. His product Tree T Pee stimulates root growth, protects trees from frost and reduces fuel, herbicide and fertilizer use, while conserving water in a major way.

Ernst Gotsch—Gotsch developed complex crop systems in the 1970s by experimenting with multi-species consortia, such as planting corn with beans or apples with cherries in Germany and Switzerland. His methods restore degraded soils, produce high yields, and eliminate the use of pesticides. “We should combine the present with the future. It must be economically viable for the present and for the future,” said Gotsch. Currently, Gotsch is developing agroecological practices in Brazil at Fazenda da Toca.

Stephanie Hanson—Hanson has been the Director of Policy and Outreach at One Acre Fund since 2009, which provides smallholder farmers in Africa with support, inputs, and training, with the goal of doubling agricultural production on each acre of smallholder farmland.

Selina Juul—Danish food waste expert, Juul, founded The Stop Wasting Food (SWF) movement in 2008 and it is now the largest consumer organization fighting against food waste in Denmark. With more than 18,000 publications and thousands of supporters, Juul is inspiring business like Rema 1000 to reduce the price of food items past sell-by dates instead of throwing them out. An analysis by TNS Gallup for Agriculture showed that in 2013 half of Danes have reduced their food waste.

Byung Soo Kim—Kim pioneered organic farming in South Korea, he started with just 20 chickens and now has more than 4,000. Active in developing co-ops, Slow Food South Korea, Worldwide Opportunities on Organic Farms (WWOOF), and spreading organic farming methods, Kim has empowered others to become interested in organic farming where it previously didn’t exist.

Federica Marra—Winner of the 2012 Barilla Center for Food & Nutrition Young Earth Solutions competition in Italy, Marra created Manna From Our Roofs, an innovative organization that engages young people across the world in food cultivation, preservation, and education.

Pashon Murray—Murray is creating a more sustainable, less wasteful world in Detroit, MI. She is the owner and co-founder of Detroit Dirt, a business that takes food scraps from restaurants, cafeteria, and the Detroit Zoo and turns it into nutrient-rich compost. She is also working with the Idea Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to optimize soil by creating blends for specific growing purposes.

Gary Paul Nabhan—Advocate, writer, and conservationist Nabhan has been honored as a pioneer and creative force in the food movement by The New York Times, TIME magazine, and more. He works with students, academics, and nonprofit to build a climate resilient food shed that covers the United States-Mexico border. Nabhan was one of the first researchers to promote using native foods to prevent diabetes and his accomplishments were featured in Food Tank’s recent short documentary, “A Man in the Maze.”

Nora Pouillon—Pouillon is a pioneer and champion of organic, environmentally conscious cuisine. She opened Restaurant Nora in 1979 and worked with farmers to supply the restaurant with seasonal organic produce. In 1999, Restaurant Nora became the first certified organic restaurant in the United States, a feat accomplished by few since.

Florence Reed—Inspired after serving as a Peace Corps Volunteer in Panama, Reed founded Sustainable Harvest International (SHI) which combats the tropical deforestation crisis in Central America. SHI provides poor farmers with sustainable alternatives to agriculture that do not degrade the environment.

Joel Salatin—A third generation alternative farmer in Virginia, Salatin returned to the farm in 1982, it currently serves more than 5,000 families, 10 retail outlets, and 50 restaurants with beef, poultry, eggs, pork, foraged-based rabbits, turkey, and forestry products. Salatin presents alternatives to conventional food production and inspires his audiences to connect with local food producers.

Sara Scherr—Scherr is the Founder and President of EcoAgriculture Partners, a nonprofit that works with agricultural communities around the world to develop ecoagriculture landscapes that enhance rural livelihoods, have sustainable and productive agricultural systems, and conserve or enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services.

Coach Mark Smallwood—Smallwood is executive director of Rodale Institute, based in Pennsylvania, which has pioneered the organic movement through its research, education and outreach since 1947. Their Farming Systems Trial is the longest running side by side comparison of organic and chemical farming approaches. Through Rodale, Smallwood, demonstrated that yields are the same in the long term, with organic yielding 30 percent higher than chemical in years of drought.

Amber Stott—Stott is on a mission to inspire kids to eat their vegetables in California. After realizing the critical need for knowledge of real food, she founded the Food Literacy Center, a community food education center focused on creating change for a healthier, more sustainable future. After three month of food literacy education, 92 percent of child participants said healthy food tastes good.

Martha Mwasu Waziri—Winner of Oxfam International’s 2012 Female Food Hero contest in Tanzania, Waziri, from the Dodoma Region, reclaimed 18 acres of land that had been eroded by a river using environmentally safe practices. It is now used as productive farmland.

Kanthi Wijekoon—A hero to other women, Wijekoon was arrested while she was trying to escape Sri Lanka to find a better life for her family. The Rural Women’s Front helped her get out of jail and she went on to lead programs reaching more than 600 women a year, increasing daily wages for women rice farmers.

Who are your favorite innovators help safeguard the planet? Share them with us! Use #FoodTank. Are you creating your own innovations? We want to know what you are up to! Email Danielle at Danielle@foodtank.com and we might highlight your innovation in an upcoming article.

Siapa Sangka Surabaya Punya Bank Sampah yang Dijadikan Objek Wisata Apik!

Siapa Sangka Surabaya Punya Bank Sampah yang Dijadikan Objek Wisata Apik!

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Ada perkampungan di Surabaya yang terkenal sampai ke mancanegara karena tokoh dan warganya berhasil menciptakan lingkungan yang sehat, bersih dan nyaman. Kampung yang bernama Jambangan itu kini menjadi daerah tujuan wisata.

Kampung Wisata Jambangan terletak di Desa Jambangan,  Kecamatan karah, Surabaya. Bagi Anda yang ingin mengunjungi kampung wisata ini bisa menempuh perjalanan dari terminal angkutan kota Joyoboyo, naik angkot jurusan Joyoboyo-Karah. Atau dengan naik kendaraan pribadi berhenti tepat di bawah jalan tol Karah. Di situ ada papan plakat bertuliskan “Kampung Wisata Jambangan”.

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Kampung Wisata Jambangan dikembangkan sejak tahun 1988. Kampung wisata ini telah menerima berbagai penghargaan dari dalam dan luar negeri karena keberhasilannya dalam menciptakan perkampungan hunian yang sehat, bersih dan asri.

Tidak mengherankan bila banyak orang-orang penting di negara kita dengan suka hati mengunjungi desa yang warganya rata-rata rajin menanam tanaman hias di halaman rumahnya ini.

Bahkan seorang pejabat IGGI (International Govermental Group on Indonesia) yang kala itu di jabat GP. Pronk sempat blusukan keluar-masuk kampung ini.

Kampung Wisata Jambangan sampai sekarang dicanangkan sebagai kampung percontohan untuk daerah lain di Indonesia.

Kampung ini pernah tersentuh program KIP (Kampung Improvment Project) dan banyak tokoh masyarakat daerah lain belajar dari keberhasilan kampung ini.

Memasuki kampung wisata Jambangan Anda akan dihadapkan dengan suasana bersih dan asri. Udara di sekitar terasa segar karena hijaunya tanaman di perkampungan ini.

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Beraneka jenis pepohonan besar, perdu bahkan beragam tanaman hias dalam pot tertata rapi di depan rumah dan menghiasi setiap gang-gang yang ada di kawasan Kampung Jambangan.

Tokoh dan warga kampung ini selama puluhan tahun dengan kesadaran penuh berhasil mengelolah sampah rumah tangga mereka. Di setiap RT di tempatkan depo-depo sampah.

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Tukang sampah memilah-milah sampah dan mengelompokkannya ke dalam bak penampungan. Ada bak yang berisi sampah-sampah kering. Bak yang lain berisi sampah basah.

Sampah kering yang berupa kardus atau plastik untuk selanjutnya dikirim ke bank sampah. Seperti layaknya bank-bank umum lainnya.

Setiap warga yang mengirimkan sampah keringnya akan dicatat oleh seorang petugas, berapa kilogram sampah yang ia setorkan ke bank sampah tersebut.

Truk pengangkut sampah kering setiap kurun waktu tertentu akan mendatangi bank sampah dan membawanya ke tempat pengepul untuk kemudian ditimbang.

Dari sampah kering yang dijual ke pengepul, warga (nasabah bank sampah) akan menerima sejumlah rupiah. Kemudian petugas bank membagikan keuntungan ini kepada setiap nasabah bank sampah yang membutuhkannya.

Sampah basah yang berupa sisa dapur dan sayuran selanjutnya dikomposkan (composting) dengan menempatkannya ke dalam drum-drum plastik (komposter).

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Komposter dibuat sedemikian rupa dengan sistem pengudaraan (aerasi) yang baik dan memungkinkan bagi perkembangan mikroba pengurai sampah.

Seorang aktivis pengomposan lebih lanjut menjelaskan kepada kami bahwa sebelum dikomposkan, bahan-bahan tadi dicacah (dipotong-potong) terlebih dulu menjadi bagian-bagian yang lebih kecil. Hal ini supaya memudahkan aktivitas mikroba (dekomposer) dalam menguraikan bahan kompos itu.

Dengan membolak-balikkan bahan kompos secara teratur setiap 2-3 hari sekali dan memasukkan starter (bibit kompos) yang didalamnya sudah mengandung EM 4 (Effective microorganisms) maka selama 2-3 bulan sudah bisa diperoleh rabuk yang sudah matang (kompos) yang siap dimanfaatkan sebagai pupuk organik tanaman.

Warga kampung ini menempatkan kompos ke dalam polibag (pot kantung plastik) sebagai pupuk organik untuk campuran media tanam sayuran atau tanaman hias.

Mereka menanam sayur atau tanaman hias dalam pot atau polibag karena terkendala oleh minimnya lahan. Dengan kreativitas dan semangat yang tinggi mereka mampu menyulap gang-gang yang sempit itu menjadi kawasan yang penuh dengan tanaman hias sehingga lingkungan perkampungan ini menjadi bersih, sehat dan asri.

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Ajakan atau slogan kepada warga kampung tentang pentingnya menggunakan sumber daya air secara bijak juga menjadi program utama yang terkait dengan pengelolaan lingkungan kawasan ini.

Kampung Wisata Jambangan juga berperan aktif dalam turut serta mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa, hal ini terbukti dengan didirikannya taman bacaan (perpustakaan) bagi warga setempat.

Secara gratis warga bisa menikmati layanan taman bacaan ini.  Ada cukup banyak koleksi literatur yang bisa dimanfaatkan warga, termasuk jurnal-jurnal ilmiah populer yang berkaitan erat dengan pengelolaan lingkungan hidup.

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Menjelang sore kamipun segera beranjak pulang.  Ada satu oleh-oleh yang kami dapatkan dari perjalanan destinasi kali ini, yaitu : inspirasi tentang pentingnya menciptakan suasana tempat tinggal yang sehat dan nyaman dimana belakangan ini jarang diperhatikan orang.

sumber : http://green.kompasiana.com/penghijauan/2013/04/14/siapa-sangka-surabaya-punya-bank-sampah-yang-dijadikan-objek-wisata-apik-546225.html

MEMBUAT BIOETANOL DARI LIMBAH BUAH-BUAHAN

MEMBUAT BIOETANOL DARI LIMBAH BUAH-BUAHAN


Buah pepaya yang sudah tidak layak jual bisa dimanfaatkan untuk bahan baku bioetanol

Buah-buahan yang mengandung kadar gula tinggi merupakan bahan yang potensial untuk bahan baku bioetanol. Buah yang dipakai bukan buah yang masih bagus dan segar, tetapi buah-buah yang sudah tidak layak jual atau hampir busuk. Daripada buah-buah ini dibuang tanpa harga, akan lebih baik jika diolah menjadi bioethanol.

Potensi Buah Afkir untuk Produksi Bioetanol

Potensi buah ini lumayan besar, terutama disentra-sentra perkebunan buah. Misalnya saja di sentra buah mangga, salak, pepaya, atau nanas. Pada saat puncak musim buah, produksi sangat melimpah. Harga buah turun drastis dan banyak buah-buah afkir yang tidak layak jual.


Kebun pepaya yang sangat luas di kaki gunung Seulawah

Sebagai contoh kebuh buah pepaya yang ada di kaki gunung Seulawah aceh. Ada ratusan hektar kebun pepaya. Buah-buah yang busuk luar biasa sekali jumlahnya. Saya tidak dapat informasi yang tepat produktivitas kebun ini. Setiap minggu buah pepaya dipetik oleh pedagang buah, sekali petik satu colt. Satu hektar bisa sekali atau dua kali petik.

Buah yang tidak layak jual cukup banyak. Perkiraan saya ada sekitar 5-10% buah yang tidak layak jual. Jadi jumlahnya cukup melimpah ruah, apalagi di puncak musim panen.

Kadar gula buah pepaya belum dianalisis di laboratorium, jadi blum tahu berapa kadar yang tepat. Buah pepaya yang sudah masak rasanya manis sekali. Perkiraan saya bisa sampai 10% kadar gulanya. Kadar yang cukup tinggi untuk dibuat ethanol.
Hitung-hitungan teoritis di atas kertas. Andaikan seluruh gula di dalam pepaya bisa diubah menjadi etanol, maka etanol yang bisa diproduksi sekitar 5.1%. Satu ton buah afkir, teoritisnya, bisa menghasilkan 51kg ethanol absolute. Realitasnya efisiensinya tidak pernah 100%. Mungkin hanya 85-90% yang bisa diambil. Demikian juga kadar etanolnya mungkin 60%, 80%, atau 95%. Meskipun begitu volumenya cukup besar, bisa sampai 48 liter dan nilainya bisa Rp 576.000 per ton buah afkir.

Nilai ini akan bertambah besar jika limbah bioetanolnya diolah kembali menjadi pupuk organik cair (POC).

Peralatan yang dibutuhkan

Peralatan yang dibutuhkan sangatlah sederhana dan mHiudah diperoleh di sekitar kebun. Alat-alat utana yang dipakai antara lain.

1. Mesin parut untuk menghancurkan buah. Kalau mesin parut susah didapat, bisa juga pakai manual dengan cara ditumbuk.
2. Drum atau bak untuk menampung bahan baku.
3. Drum atau bak fermentasi
4. Timbangan kecil. Bisa pakai timbangan kue.
5. Ethanol meter. Kalau alat ini perlu dibeli di kota. Biasanya ada di toko-toko yang menjual alat-alat laboratorium.
6. Distilator. Alat ini harus dipesan ke produsennya. Sesuaikan kapasitas distilator dengan kapasitas produksi ethanolnya.
7. Peralatan pendukunh lainnya, seperti: ember, gayung, parang, dan lain-lain.

Bahan-bahan

Bahan-bahan yang dibutuhkan untuk produksi bioethanol dari limbah buah-buahan antara lain seperti disebutksn di bawah ini.

1. Limbah buah, jelas ini adalah bahan baku utamanya.
2. Ragi roti. Bisa pakai ragi roti yang banyak dijual di toko yang menjual bahan baku kue/roti.
3. Urea dan NPK (15-15-15), untuk nutrisi tambahan ragi.

Resep Bahan

Idealnya sebelum difermentasi sari buah perlu ditest terlebih dahulu kandungan gulanya. Tetapi kalau tidak mau repot bisa dikira-kira. Resep dasarnya adalah sebagai berikut:
Ragi = 0.5% x kadar gula x volume sari buah
Urea = 0.5% x kadar gula x volume sari buah
NPK = 0.2% x kadar gula x volume sari buah
Sebagai contoh kadar gula sari buah adalah 10%, maka untuk setiap 1 drum volume 200 liter penambahan bahan-bahannya adalah:
– 100 gr Ragi
– 100 gr Urea
– 40 gr NPK

Cara Pembuatan

1. Buah dihancurkan terlebih dahulu dengan menngunakan parutan atau ditumbuk.


Menghancurkan buah pepaya dengan cara ditumbuk

2. Masukkan Urea & NPK ke dalam drum dan dicampur hingga merata.


Just buah pepaya yang siap difermentasi

3. Encerkan yeast dengan air hangat-hangat kuku, diaduk sampai muncul buihnya.
4. Masukkan ragi ke dalam sari buah dan diaduk sampai tercampir merata.

Campuran ragi roti dan NPK harus diaduk sampai tercampur merata.

6. Sari buah difermentasi minimal selama 72 jam atau 3 hari, sampai tidak muncul buihnya lagi.

Sari buah yang sedang difermentasi, khamir tampak aktif memfermentasi sari buah.

7. Sari buah diperas dan diambil airnya.


Pemerasan

8. Air perasan ini kemudian didistilasi untuk mendapatkan ethanol.


Proses distilasi etanol

Limbah sisa distilasi bisa diolah kembali menjadi POC (Pupuk Organik Cair). Pupuk organik yang dihasilkan bisa dimanfaatkan untuk kebun sendiri atau dijual ke petani/pekebun lain.
***
Jangan buang buah-buah yang tidak layak jual dan sdh mulai membusuk. Buah-buah tersebut bisa diolah menjadi etanol yang nilainya lumayan besar. Tunggu apa lagi.

(Medan, June 14, 2010; ditulis dlm perjalanan Aceh-Medan)

sumber :http://isroi.com/2010/06/14/membuat-bioetanol-dari-limbah-buah-buahan/

What Do Noodles and Oranges Have in Common? Japanese Bioenergy

What Do Noodles and Oranges Have in Common? Japanese Bioenergy

In Japan, solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has been a center of attention ever since the nation’s government launched a very rich feed-in tariff (FIT) program. Although they are not getting the spotlight, there are also several unique biomass projects in Japan, which fully utilize locally-available resources such as noodles and oranges, without directly competing with consumable food production.